Baiame Cave is located in the foothills of the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range in Milbrodale, on privately owned farmland, a few kilometres north of the boundary of Yengo National Park.
Baiame Cave is of state significance for its association with the main figure depicted in the cave, believed to be Baiame, who is understood by some Aboriginal people across NSW to be the creator, the ‘Father of All’, the most important ancestor and law-maker. The site is also of state significance for its history and associations with the Wonnarua, the Aboriginal people who are understood to be the traditional custodians of the artwork prior to and post colonisation. The painting is representative of the traditional heritage of the Aboriginal people of the Hunter Valley and of NSW.
Baiame Cave is also of state significance as a rare and representative indigenous rock art painting site in NSW. Rock art sites in NSW are more likely to feature smaller-scale engravings of animals or human figures, or painted hand stencils rather than large painted human figures. Although unusual in the NSW context this is one of many regional variations in rock art across NSW, and therefore has State-wide comparative and representative value.